Book Review: Freedom is a Constant Struggle by Angela Y. Davis

“…the greatest challenge facing us as we attempt to forge international solidarities and connections across national borders is an understanding of what feminists often call “intersectionality.” Not so much intersectionality of identities, but intersectionality of struggles.”

Be ready to set aside everything you thought you knew about freedom, struggle, intersectionality, marginalization, and the likes.

Angela Y. Davis’ nonfiction text, Freedom is a Constant Struggle, is a short, but powerful read that packs an intellectual punch. Davis focuses on the idea that people need to band together for the multitude of social issue fights.

FCS’s Format: If you are already familiar with Davis’ form of writing, then you will be anticipating a read that uses an academic style. For this book, it is not the case; however, it does not take away from the mission.

With the short length of her book, it is easy to think that she is failing to cover many of the most poignant aspects of the “struggle fight”. However, it is too easy, if you are thinking too hard, to not “pick up what she’s puttin’ down”.

Compiling a series transcripts from events she participated in over the past few years, Davis asserts why marginalized issues of today need to continually be addressed, and how to create solid foundations to actively approach this.

Quotes that I loved…

Our struggles can’t be confronted alone:

Davis in more ways than one, emphasizes the importance of ridding ourselves of the viewpoint that effective movements that create change can only happen with a solitary leader or solitary perpetrators where all can look unto that person as the messiah or as the villain; “we do not now need the traditional, recognizable Black male charismatic leader…we deeply appreciate [Martin and Malcolm for their] historical contributions, but we need not replicate the past (85).”

Besides, when we take this individualistic approach of recognizing necessary change, we actively overlook the fact that “women have always done the work of organizing Black radical movements…(86).”

Universal categories of equality continue to perpetuate marginalization.

“The ‘all-embracing slogan, ‘All Lives Matter,” are often embracing a strategy that glosses over the particular reasons why it is important to insist quite specifically on an end to racist violence…the extent to which such universal proclamations have always bolstered racism. More often than not universal categories have been clandestinely racialized (87).”

Final Thoughts:

There are so many other important points that Davis brings up in order for her readers to understand the necessary steps to address many of the social changes that need to happen. Most importantly she highlights what I call the importance of knowing who your common enemy is, and using that to build a foundation of fighters that don’t just focus on what their struggle is.

We are more powerful in numbers. I don’t have many cons, but if you are someone who is easily agitated by repetition of ideas, then be ready for that, but don’t let it deter you from reading this great work.

I really enjoyed this book because it was really well written, repeated important ideas, and worked as a foundation to working towards social change.

Big Changes

Things have changed a lot the past few months. Not to say that the changes in my life have contributed to why I write so little here. Even before all the changes, I have not been writing here a lot. Well I have, but mostly drafts of writing.

For the past few months, I have written various drafts for this blog unsure of what to post. Given how little I do post, I wanted to recommit myself to this, but I also what to acknowledge that a lot has changed for me. Also, it would make more sense to align the page with what is going on in my educator-life.

So, what has changed?

  1. I have moved to a new city and state.
  2. I am working at a new school, which of course has many new things going on.
  3. I am teaching a new grade level (and it’s a major leap from what I was doing before.
  4. I am teaching a new subject (still humanities-related)
  5. I am teaching at a turnaround school, which as a lot of challenge that I hope to suss out through writing.

While I will not be able to give every detail of these changes (for privacy and safety of course), I do want to craft my posts to better show what I am experiencing in my career as an educator. Most importantly my goal for this blog is to use my writing as to support educators that are in the beginning of their careers like me, and know that in this struggle as a novice teacher, I am right there with you.

Thank you for reading, and please leave feedback.



Classroom Environment, Student Engagement, and Commitment to Learning

My plan to learn how to establish an effective classroom environment, student engagement and commitment to learning began with the educational video based website for teachers, The Teaching Channel.  As most teachers know, this site provides beginner teachers with many authentic video recordings about several topics a newer teacher wants to explore. There were many videos attributed to improving and creating a classroom environment and also geared towards how to give students a joint responsibility in their learning.  I focused my video watching on how teachers establish classroom environments that live beyond the teacher.

In other words, my goal in watching the teaching videos was to work on having a classroom culture that is collectively committed to learning, even when I am not present in the class.  A Teaching Channel video that supported me with this module was from Sarah Brown Wessling’s, “How To Build A Culture for Starting” she focuses her goal on creating a classroom culture that supports learning.   The second way that I developed new learning was through my conversations with my mentor teacher during our meetings.  Through these meetings, I was able to seek professional advice about a dilemma in my classrooms specifically related to classroom environment and student engagement, in which my mentor teacher provided me with specific strategies for these areas for my class.  In short, we discussed how to give students very specific roles in the classroom that in turn allows for student assume responsibilities in establishing an effective classroom environment.

For the latter strategy, I first came to my mentor teacher with the problem.  This was probably one of the clearest moments when I realized that the classroom environment and commitment to learning needed to be reviewed and adapted to better fit a learning environment that was maintained even when I was not there.  Upon being ill for a few days, I came back to school with a note from the substitute teacher essentially expressing disappointment with my students’ behavior during the days I was out.  The behavior reflected a classroom that did not have an effective learning environment and it even brought the teacher covering my class to question whether or not my students had regard for me as their main teacher.  My immediate thought to myself was that my students are typically not like that and then I realized perhaps they were being complaint mainly because I am the main teacher.  This was not good enough for me so I sought out the support of my mentor teacher.  After sharing the problem to him, I was encouraged to think about the following question, “how do I establish a classroom learning environment that goes beyond myself?” and thus began my quest on possible solutions so that the next time I was not going to be in class the culture and environment would remain together.  

With one colleague I was suggested that I have students essentially reflect on the experience that took place with the substitute teacher and have them write a letter to the substitute in acknowledgment of their behavior and how they will use this as an opportunity to establish integrity.  While I did this, I knew I needed to do more, so in discussion with my mentor he suggested that I reevaluate what work I was giving students when I was gone, and to consider ways to divide up the responsibility of the lesson to multiple students, especially the students that cause the most unbalance in the learning environment.  I knew that I had some in school meetings during the class period coming up and that I needed to work with on classroom environment, so I took the time to try out the suggested practice.  Right away I was able to think about which students would most benefit from leadership roles and well as support roles for the teacher that would substitute in my place.

The day that I was scheduled for a meeting in school, I made sure to tell the students that I would need their help with the class running smoothly.  I divided up the things that needed to be done with different students based on what I knew they could handle.  Some students were in charge of explaining the instructions; others were in charge of passing back work, and some collecting work.  As a result, because students had specific tasks it established for them a purpose and they were needed to engage in the learning even when I was not there.  Prior to beginning of this module of improving the classroom environment and commitment to learning, my students were not able to maintain an effective classroom environment when I was not in the classroom.  After the classroom module this changed and my students were effective in maintaining a classroom environment and commitment to learning, which was impacted by their more direct engagement with the learning.  To be more specific with evidence of how this classroom environment module impacted my student’s learning, whether or not I am in the classroom, my students have been able to assume more responsibilities that directly influence the maintenance of the classroom environment.  This was something that they were not able to do prior to the module.

Prior to using this strategy, I mainly would leave work that correlated with the curriculum, but in all honesty, it was sort of busy work.  Now I see that when I give students a purpose they are more engaged and intrinsically invested in respecting the learning environment even when I am not there because they are now more committed to learning.

To continue, Ms. Wessling from “The Teaching Channel” discusses the importance of giving students a clear purpose in the classroom and consistently ensuring that students know they are an important asset to the learning environment and that their thinking and actions are of great value.  She explains that a great way to achieve this intrinsic understanding for students is to provide them with authentic learning experiences. So, I decided to figure out ways to take the curriculum required of me and adapt it in a manner that would allow for students to be invested in their own learning, in other words, more committed to their learning.

I started to reflect on the nature of my lessons and how students would be able to produce work that portrayed their understanding of the objectives and correlated with my module goal of establishing a learning environment that effectively shows that my students are engaged with their learning.  With this learning goal in mind I created activities that required each student in their small groups to have a specific role that also was very important to the group’s success in the activity.  The Tableau Vivant or “living image” is an activity that gives students the ability to show that they understand some of the major philosophies in our unit of study.  Each group has a student in charge of directing, taking pictures, writing analysis with evidence, posing for snapshots, and ensuring that all work got back to me so that they were prepared to make their posters for our classes upcoming gallery walk.  This activity not only established a purpose for each student it also created the atmosphere of an authentic learning experience.  Students were aware that the entire class would be coming to see their work, so it had to be their best.  

As a result of activities like the Tableau Vivant and establishing more specific roles in learning goal activities, my students are now able to develop a sense of responsibility and can run the classroom as groups that have established purposes.  Whereas before, they were not as committed to group activities because they did not have a clear understanding of what their specific role or skill would contribute to the group’s learning.  Now my students are more independent in being given tasks for their learning goal, and dividing up the responsibilities amongst themselves without my immediate direction.  This demonstrates growth within this learning module because my students have developed an autonomous desire to maintain an effective classroom environment that is committed to their engagement and learning goals.  

Similar to Ms. Wessling, I was able to understand that there is a correlation between authenticity and purpose.  To elaborate, for students to develop a commitment to learning where they intrinsically desire to do whatever it is they are doing in the classroom, there needs to be a real reason as to why they are doing it.  While I understand this theoretically, and see in my classroom day in and day out why this is important to do, I also see where I fall short.  In order to reach my students with a deeper sense purpose tied to what they are learning, I need to be deliberate and cognizant about how, when and where I can incorporate this committed to learning environment.  To that end, from Ms. Wessling’s videos I found that when I established a strong learning environment I also was invested in the activity not only as a teacher but also as a learner alongside my students.

My students continue to make progress and grow towards becoming more engaged and committed to the learning in the classroom, and this has established a more effective group of learners.  I now see how this level of engagement has changed through their desire to ask more questions, to wonder why things are being done the way they are, and to seek alternative ways to do it better.  As the teacher, leader, and coach I now feel less anxiety when I have to leave the class for meetings and I’m always taken aback by what new learning they have come across as a result of working on the classroom environment together with my students.


Cultivating Beautiful Questions

Growing up and living with my family of origin, there was an unspoken rule within the household: asking questions is not okay.  This rule was in place because to ask questions was deemed rude and it showed that the individual asking the questions was seeking to challenge the authority figures in the home.  While no one explicitly said that I wasn’t allowed to ask questions (well sometimes they did) I knew that doing so was always uncalled for.  I knew because of the reactions that I received every time I would ask a question.  Little did I know that not asking questions kept me from learning about what I did not know or understand about the world around me.   The power of nonverbal disapproval discouraged me from asking questions and I did not know or realize at the time that this was something I would have to undo.  In order for me to reverse that discouragement of not asking questions, I had to ask myself a question: “why don’t people want me to ask questions?”

Warren Berger, author of A More Beautiful Question defines a beautiful question as “an ambitious yet actionable question that can begin to shift the way we perceive or think about something— and that might serve as a catalyst to bring about change.”  This is what I want for my teaching, I want what occurs in the classroom to be driven by beautiful questions that will motivate my students to change as innovative thinkers, writers, speaker, and readers.  However, with my teaching style currently I see many obstacles in the way.

As a teacher and  “type A” teacher at that, I often times want things to be perfect, not wanting to run the risk of the unexpected taking place in my classroom. I do understand that when the unexpected takes place, authentic learning is bred.  Without cultivating an untypical learning environment, I believe that I run the risk of stifling the learning of my students.  The classroom should be the place where students are given the opportunity to pose their questions, try to solve them, and ask more questions if they are not getting the answers they wanted.  This will make room for more innovative thinkers and make for more interesting papers for me to read (ha)!

There are things that my students don’t know, and my job is to help them to realize what they don’t know, they don’t know.  With that, they can unlock answers  about the world that surrounds them using the world literature that we read to drive that thinking. This literature is too rich to not give my students the opportunity to dig deeper into the unknown.

I aspire to work towards a learning environment that creates “question[s] [that] challenge authority and disrupt established structures, processes, and systems”, which in turn will [force us all] to have to at least think about doing something differently” (139).

There are too many great opportunities that can come out of asking beautiful questions.  So, why don’t I start with this first question: how can I cultivate beautiful questions in my classroom?

Starting a New Unit is Hard!

It’s Sunday night and I am trying to wrap my head around how I want to launch this new unit.  The most frustrating thing about teaching a new curriculum and a new unit is that you are left in the unknown.  How you begin the unit often times dictates how well they process the rest of the unit, so the foundation has to be constructed mostly right.

Well, instead of focusing on what I don’t know, I’ll focus on what I do know:

  1. They will start with essential questions that are stems from the overarching unit’s essential question.
  2. They will share their viewpoints with each other.
  3. They will take notes when necessary.
  4. They will (hopefully) understand the major unit concepts.
  5. They will leave my classroom with a load of glee for learning…



Love as a Metaphor in Latin American Literature

The purpose of this post is to share how I am approaching this coming teaching week, which focuses on love as a metaphor.

When I read the assessment attached with the unit I thought it was quite cliché.  Why would it be important to analyze love within this text when there are so many other things to address?  However, having read One Hundred Years of Solitude I remembered that Márquez portrays the concept of love in ways that go beyond the repeated and trite look of love today.  I decided to accept this love assessment as a challenge instead of something that I was going to gripe about and think deeply about how I am going to catalyze and support my learners in their own original thinking of love and how they will analyze within the text.

What texts will I be using?

  1. An excerpt from Ch.2 of One Hundred Years of Solitude. This excerpt mainly focuses on José Arcadio Buendía and Úrsula’s fear of having children and the causes and effects of this fear.
  2. The excerpt as you can tell from the title of this blog is taken from Ch. 14 of the same text mentioned above: The Love Story of Mauricio and Meme.

Why I chose these texts to analyze and discuss love as a metaphor?

I chose these texts because they both portray love that is different from the traditional storyline of love as we see it in today.  This love that these four characters experience do not only involve themselves and their own fears, but also the fear of what others have to say about their love.  The love that we take the time to invest in others (regardless of who is receiving and reciprocating it) does not go “untouched”.  That’s cryptic, I know. Anywho, the point I am trying to make is love is nuanced, complex, and often times difficult.  I want my students to construct their own understanding of love as they see it in Marquez’s text and articulate their shared thoughts in writing and speaking.

How will my connect what they learned from the previous weeks to this? What is the transfer (how will my students apply their learning to a new situation)?

Teaching in a vacuum is something that I have to check myself on regularly. Otherwise I find, and often times worry, that what I have taught has only been a means to the end that only applies to what we are doing in the classroom.  There is nothing satisfying about this type of teaching for me.  So first, I must think about what my students have learned and what they are going to learn about this week.  I need to create bridges that they can walk over.

Well last week they learned mainly about literary magical realism (LMR), if you aren’t sure what that is (don’t worry I wasn’t either until confronting this curriculum) here is a link that I referred to frequently for teaching support.  While I can confidently say that my students understanding what LMR is, I can’t say that they have a deep understanding of it’s purpose in their own lives.  So first, I at some point this week I would like my students to construct purpose behind understanding what LMR is aside from their ability to identify it within a text.  I think this is why they struggled with analyzing it in the texts so far because they don’t see it’s worth.

In this week’s text the magical element seems to be the butterflies that follow Mauricio around and eventually linger with Meme.  It’s not clear to me yet what the butterflies symbolize, but that’s the beauty of teaching, I also get to learn. This love story between Meme and Mauricio is quite intriguing, the chapter focuses mainly on building the reader to understand the romance between the two characters that is not approved by Meme’s mother, Fernanda. Fernanda seems to have an issue with this man pursuing her daughter and it will be part of the work of my students to figure out why that is.

I think that the transfer for this week is looking closely at the conflict the concept of love has within the text.  I believe that this is transfer because the final assessment requires that students take on another concept word and analyze its multilayered meaning in Márquez’s Nobel Prize acceptance speech.  As for how it connects and transfer to life? Well, I think many people can attest to their own experience with love and

One of the hardest things for as a teacher is being careful to not simply give my students the answer when I feel like it is getting to tough.  I have to remind myself not to do the work for them regularly. Often times we do this without even noticing, so it’s important that I question whether or not I am doing this often. Everything in me wants to make the pressure of making the work easier for my students by giving them something like guiding questions.  It’s not that guiding question for a text are bad, actually I strongly believe that they are necessary when reading a really difficult text, but this one is not, in my teacher opinion.  I believe in the work my students can do to make sense of the text on their own and with their peers.

I’ve given my students the weekend to read the text and take plenty of notes. This will allow them to understand the text, gather the surface level information in preparation for work this week that will push them to dig deeper.

Questions I am still asking myself as I plan for this coming week:

  1. How do I get students to interact with the text on their own and construct their own understanding?
  2. What steps do I need to take in order to prepare students to transfer the skill of analyzing the concept of love metaphorically within a text and articulate their understanding through writing?
  3. What’s the point of doing any of the skill work and how does it connect and apply to their own lives? Why are we doing this?
  4. How will I encourage thinking that supports them in life?
  5. What are ways to encourage my students to take ownership of their learning and go beyond what I assign for them to do?
  6. What are ways that I can encourage students to build inquiry about the text they are reading so I am not taking away this opportunity for learning growth from them?

Thanks for joining me on this journey and since the writing portion of this unit is fast approaching I will definitely be posting more.  I can’t expect my kids to become better writers if I myself am not pushing myself to do the same by writing more on this platform.

Thanks for reading and please leave a question, comment, query, and/or a conundrum below!



So I’ve Started This Blog, Why?

I’ve finally decided to start this blog upon the beginning of a new school year (well I’m about two weeks late, no big deal!), here is why:

  • I have never taught World Literature before and I need to actively work through this problem.
  • I am seeking out teachers or like-minded folks that  are experiencing a similar problem and so we can all share solutions.
  • I want to document this journey, what I learn, and how I will grow in my teaching this year.

Thanks for joining me on this journey!